Introducing Debian 12: Bookworm

Introducing Debian 12: Bookworm

The Debian Project team has released Debian 12, nicknamed “Bookworm,” on June 10th, 2023. This release is the result of many months of hard work and dedication. As a successor to Debian 11, known as “Bullseye,” Debian 12 “Bookworm” is a Long-Term Support (LTS) release. This means it will receive updates and support for the next five years, ensuring users have a stable and secure operating system for a significant period.

Understanding Debian 12

Debian 12, or “Bookworm,” is the newest version of the Debian GNU/Linux operating system, taking the place of Debian 11 “Bullseye.” This update brings a refresh to the software packages, including significant updates to core components like systemd and the GCC compiler, as well as enhanced hardware support, especially for newer AMD processors. A major focus of this release is on improving security and system stability, making it a solid foundation for users’ computing needs.

How to Install Debian 12

For those looking to install Debian 12, the process is straightforward. Visit the official Debian download page to find the installation files. You have two main options: a DVD ISO for a complete installation package or a netinst ISO for a network-based installation, suitable for those with fast internet connections. These options support both 64-bit and 32-bit computer architectures.

Alternatively, for users seeking a quick and easy setup, Cherry Servers offers a service to deploy a pre-configured Debian server in minutes. This option is ideal for those who prefer a ready-to-use server solution.

New and Noteworthy in Debian 12

  1. Linux Kernel 6.1: Debian 12 includes the latest LTS version of the Linux kernel, which brings numerous improvements to enhance security, performance, and hardware compatibility. Features include support for the Rust programming language, performance boosts for popular file systems, and enhanced support for new CPUs and GPUs.
  2. All-In-One ISO File: A significant change is the inclusion of non-free software packages directly within the DVD ISO file. This integration means users no longer need to download separate files for proprietary drivers or firmware, simplifying the installation process.
  3. Dedicated Non-Free Firmware Archive: Debian 12 introduces a specific archive for non-free firmware. This move separates non-free firmware from other non-free software, making it easier for users to find and install the firmware necessary for their hardware.
  4. Pipewire as Default Audio Server: For those using the GNOME desktop environment, Debian 12 switches to Pipewire as the default audio server, aiming to provide superior audio and video handling on Linux systems.
  5. APT 2.6 Package Manager: The inclusion of APT 2.6 in Debian 12 enhances the system’s ability to manage software packages, including improved support for non-free firmware.
  6. New Themes and Wallpaper: Debian 12 introduces a fresh look with the “Emerald” theme, featuring an elegant green wallpaper that reflects the beauty of natural gemstones.
  7. Updated Desktop Environments: This release supports the latest versions of several popular desktop environments, offering a variety of user experiences. GNOME 43, rather than the very latest GNOME 44, is included due to timing constraints.
  8. Updated Software Packages: A significant portion of the software from Debian 11 has been updated, including major applications and system components like Apache, Nginx, PHP, and many others.
  9. Expanded Hardware Support: Debian 12 extends its compatibility to a wide range of computer architectures, ensuring broad hardware support.
  10. Additional Improvements: This release also includes several other enhancements, such as support for the Apple File System, better dual-boot detection with Windows 11, and more.

Closing Overview

Debian 12 “Bookworm” is a significant update, offering a range of features and improvements that emphasize performance, stability, and user-friendliness. Whether you’re a long-time Debian user or new to Linux, Debian 12 provides a reliable and versatile platform for computing needs.

Here’s a table summarizing the key differences between Debian 10 (Buster), Debian 11 (Bullseye), and Debian 12 (Bookworm):

Feature/Aspect Debian 10 (Buster) Debian 11 (Bullseye) Debian 12 (Bookworm)
Release Date July 6, 2019 August 14, 2021 June 10, 2023
Linux Kernel Version 4.19 5.10 6.1
Default Desktop GNOME 3.30 GNOME 3.38 GNOME 43 (GNOME 44 not included due to timing)
Systemd Version 241 247.2 Updated to match release (specific version not mentioned)
GCC Version 8.3 10.2 Updated (specific version not mentioned)
LibreOffice Version 6.1 7.0 7.4
PHP Version 7.3 7.4 8.2
Package Updates Over 42% of all packages updated Over 67% of Debian 11 packages updated
New Software Packages 11,089 new packages
Total Software Packages Over 64,000 packages in the repository
Non-Free Firmware Separate ISOs for non-free firmware Separate ISOs for non-free firmware Non-free firmware included in the main DVD ISO
Audio Server PulseAudio (default for many DEs) PulseAudio (default for many DEs) Pipewire by default for GNOME
APT Version 1.8 2.2 2.6
Architectures Supported amd64, i386, armel, armhf, arm64, mips, mipsel, mips64el, ppc64el, s390x amd64, i386, armel, armhf, arm64, mips, mipsel, mips64el, ppc64el, s390x Same as Debian 11 plus any updates
Security and Stability Emphasis on security and stable updates Continued emphasis on security and stability Focus on security, stability, and improved hardware support

This table highlights the evolution of Debian from version 10 to 12, showcasing the advancements in kernel version, default desktop environment, software versions, and overall package updates, among other features. Debian 12 “Bookworm” builds upon the solid foundation of its predecessors, offering the latest software and improved hardware support, making it a compelling update for users of Debian Linux.


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