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Installing BIND DNS server on Ubuntu 20 LTS VPS

Installing BIND DNS server on Ubuntu 20 LTS VPS

Master the art of setting up a BIND DNS server on your Ubuntu 20.04 LTS VPS with this step-by-step guide. 🚀

Table of Contents

🔧 Installation of BIND

Follow these steps to install BIND on your Ubuntu VPS.

# Update your package list
sudo apt update

# Install BIND9
sudo apt install bind9

These commands update your package list and install the BIND9 DNS server package.

Initial Configuration

# Edit the named.conf.options file to configure DNS settings
sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf.options

Modify the configuration file to set up your DNS server settings.

📝 Configuration Examples

Here are some basic configurations for setting up different types of DNS servers.

Recursion

// Enable recursion
options {
recursion yes;
};

This setting enables recursive queries on the DNS server.

Master and Slave DNS

// Master DNS configuration
zone "example.com" {
type master;
file "/etc/bind/db.example.com";
};

// Slave DNS configuration
zone "example.com" {
type slave;
file "db.example.com";
masters { master-ip-address; };
};

Configurations for setting up master and slave DNS servers for the domain example.com.

An Example of a zone file for BIND

Below is an example of a zone file for BIND, typically named db.example.com, representing a domain example.com. This file is part of the DNS configuration that resides in the /etc/bind/ directory on a server running BIND on Ubuntu. It includes various DNS record types like A, AAAA, CNAME, MX, and NS records.

$TTL 86400
@ IN SOA ns1.example.com. admin.example.com. (
2024012801 ; Serial
7200 ; Refresh
7200 ; Retry
1209600 ; Expire
86400 ) ; Negative Cache TTL

; Nameserver records
@ IN NS ns1.example.com.
@ IN NS ns2.example.com.

; A Records for name servers
ns1 IN A 192.0.2.1
ns2 IN A 192.0.2.2

; A Record for hostnames
www IN A 192.0.2.3
mail IN A 192.0.2.4

; AAAA Record for IPv6
www IN AAAA 2001:db8::1

; CNAME Record
ftp IN CNAME www.example.com.

; MX Record for Mail Server
example.com. IN MX 10 mail.example.com.

; Additional TXT, PTR, SRV, CERT, DNAME records as needed

Keep in mind that this is a basic example and should be customized according to your specific domain and network requirements.

Explanation of this file

$TTL 86400: Default time-to-live value set to 86400 seconds (24 hours).
SOA Record: Defines the start of authority for this zone, including primary name server (ns1.example.com.), the responsible party for the domain (admin.example.com.), and various timing parameters.
NS Records: Defines the authoritative name servers for the domain (example.com.).
A Records: Maps host names (like www and mail) to IPv4 addresses.
AAAA Record: Maps a host name to an IPv6 address.
CNAME Record: ftp.example.com is an alias of www.example.com..
MX Record: Defines the mail exchange server for the domain (mail.example.com.) with priority 10.

Remember to replace the IP addresses, domain names, and other specifics with your actual data. Also, each time you modify this file, you should increment the serial number in the SOA record (e.g., 2024012801 to 2024012802) to indicate a change in the zone file.

🌐 DNS Records Types Explained

DNS records are essential for controlling your domain’s email settings, website, and more.

  • A record: Links a domain to an IPv4 address.
  • AAAA record: Connects a domain to an IPv6 address.
  • CNAME record: Allows one domain to be an alias of another.
  • NS record: Indicates the authoritative name server for a domain.
  • MX record: Directs email to a mail server.
  • SOA, TXT, PTR, SRV, CERT, DNAME: Provide various functionalities from specifying authoritative information about a domain, to mail server verification, and service discovery.

❌ Common Errors and Solutions

Here are some frequent issues you might encounter and how to solve them.

  • Error: Service failed to start.
    Solution: Check for syntax errors in your BIND configuration files.
  • Error: Unable to resolve domains.
    Solution: Verify your DNS records and ensure your BIND server is correctly configured.

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